SWOT analysis - What is and how to conduct it?

Appinio Research · 01.06.2023 · 13min read

Coworkers conducting a SWOT analysis workshop with a whiteboard and post-its

The SWOT analysis is a valuable tool used by organizations and individuals alike to evaluate their current situation, make informed decisions, and develop effective strategies. 


In this blog post, we will explore:

  1. What a SWOT analysis is
  2. How it works and provide examples
  3. Discuss its use cases and examine its pros and cons. 


By the end, you'll have a comprehensive understanding of this powerful analysis technique and its practical applications.


What is a SWOT analysis?


A SWOT analysis is a framework that helps individuals or organizations assess their internal strengths and weaknesses, as well as external opportunities and threats. 


The best thing about the SWOT analysis? It is a simple brainstorming technique!


What does SWOT analysis stand for?


The acronym SWOT stands for Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats, which are the four key elements analyzed in this process. 


By examining these factors, a SWOT analysis enables individuals or organizations to gain insights into their current position in relation to the external environment and identify areas where they can capitalize on their strengths, address weaknesses, seize opportunities, and mitigate threats.


How does a SWOT analysis work?


A SWOT analysis involves a systematic evaluation of the four components: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Here's a breakdown of the process:


  1. Strengths 
    Identify the internal attributes and resources that give you or your organization a competitive advantage. These could include unique skills, expertise, valuable assets, strong brand recognition, or a loyal customer base.
    You can identify strengths by leveraging these questions:
    • What do you do well?
    • What have your customers told you they like about your brand / business?
    • What do you do better than your competitors?
    • What’s unique about your business, products or services?
    • What assets do you own (intellectual property, proprietary technology, capitol)?

  2. Weaknesses 
    Evaluate the internal aspects that put you or your organization at a disadvantage. These may include limited resources, lack of expertise in certain areas, inadequate technology, or poor internal processes.
    You can pinpoint weaknesses by answering these questions:
    • What can you improve?
    • What are your customers dissatisfied with?
    • What do you do worse than your competitors?
    • Where are you lacking in knowledge and/or resources?

  3. Opportunities 
    Examine the external factors and trends that could potentially benefit you or your organization. This could include emerging markets, advancements in technology, changing customer needs, or new partnerships and collaborations.
    Opportunities can be identified by asking these questions:
    • What emerging trends can you take advantage of?
    • Which of your strengths might be valuable to potential partners?
    • What market could you tap into?
    • Are there other markets or target groups with less competition?

  4. Threats 
    Analyze the external factors that could pose risks or challenges to you or your organization. This might involve competition, economic downturns, regulatory changes, emerging technologies that could disrupt your industry, or any other factors that could impact your success.
    You can spot threats with the help of these questions:
    • What is your competition doing?
    • How could our weaknesses leave us vulnerable?
    • What market trends are we unprepared for?
    • What economic or political issue could impact our business?

Once you have identified and documented the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, you can move on to the next steps of the analysis.


SWOT analysis use cases

We’ve seen that a SWOT analysis is a simple and effective method, but when would you use it?
A SWOT analysis can be applied to a wide range of situations and entities, including:

  1. Business planning and strategy development
  2. Market research and competitor analysis
  3. Project evaluation and decision-making
  4. Product development and innovation
  5. Non-profit organizations and fundraising efforts
  6. Personal development and career planning
  7. And more...

By understanding your specific use cases, you will be able to identify how a SWOT analysis can be utilized in your specific contexts to gain a competitive advantage or make informed decisions.

The next section will provide examples to illustrate how a SWOT analysis can be applied.

SWOT analysis examples

In this section, we will provide some examples of SWOT analyses to demonstrate how this framework can be used in various contexts. These examples will cover different industries and scenarios, showcasing the versatility of the SWOT analysis as a decision-making tool. By exploring these examples, readers will gain practical insights into applying the SWOT analysis to their own situations.


Let’s conduct a SWOT analysis for a brand / business / company.

Imagine you’re running a skincare brand.

You have stores all over the country and you’re looking to expand into another international market. 


Your brand has a lot of different product lines catering to different concerns and to many different target groups. 


Your e-commerce is well established, but you don't provide international deliveries.
What would you need to take into account before starting your expansion strategy and planning?


1. Identify Strengths

    1. Established Brand Reputation: The skincare brand has built a strong reputation in the domestic market, known for its quality products and effective solutions.
    2. Diverse product lines: The brand offers a wide range of product lines catering to different skincare concerns and target groups, providing versatility and options for customers.
    3. Nationwide store presence: The brand has a network of physical stores throughout the country, contributing to its visibility and accessibility.
    4. Strong e-commerce presence: The brand has a well-developed e-commerce platform, enabling convenient online shopping for customers within the country.


2. Weaknesses

    1. Limited international presence: The brand has not expanded into international markets before, lacking experience and infrastructure to support global operations.
    2. Lack of global distribution: The brand currently does not have a system in place for delivering products to customers in other countries, which may pose logistical challenges.
    3. Potential cultural adaptation: The brand may face difficulties in adapting to the cultural preferences and skincare needs of the new international market.


3. Opportunities

    1. Untapped international market: Expanding into a new international market presents an opportunity to tap into a potentially large customer base and increase brand recognition globally.
    2. Growing interest in skincare: The skincare industry is experiencing steady growth worldwide, with increasing consumer interest in skincare products and self-care routines.
    3. Demand for natural and sustainable skincare: There is a growing demand for natural, eco-friendly, and sustainable skincare products.


4. Threats

    1. Competitive landscape: The international skincare market is highly competitive, with established global and local brands competing for market share.
    2. Regulatory compliance: The brand will need to navigate and comply with different regulations and requirements in the new international market, which may involve additional costs and complexities.
    3. Cultural and consumer preferences: The skincare needs, preferences, and beauty standards can vary significantly across different countries and cultures, requiring customization and adaptation of products and marketing strategies.



But a SWOT analysis can also be conducted to assess ourselves.

Imagine you’re re-entering the workforce, it could be useful to run a SWOT analysis before updating your CV or joining an interview.


Personal SWOT analysis


A personal SWOT analysis could go this way.


  1. Strengths: Strong communication skills, extensive industry knowledge, ability to work well in a team.
  2. Weaknesses: Lack of advanced technical skills, limited experience in project management, limited knowledge of the latest softwares or tools.
  3. Opportunities: Professional development programs, networking events to expand connections, potential for career advancement.
  4. Threats: Strong competition for job opportunities, economic downturn impacting job stability.

How to do a SWOT analysis step-by-step

    • Identify the objective: Determine the purpose and focus of the SWOT analysis. Are you evaluating a business, a project, or yourself? Clarify the specific objective to ensure a targeted analysis. You can use this formula “My business needs [X]. We can meet those needs by doing [X], [X] and [X].”

    • Gather information: Collect relevant data and information about the subject of the analysis. This may include internal documents, market research, financial reports, customer feedback, or industry trends. Ensure a comprehensive understanding of the internal and external factors that impact the subject.

    • Create a SWOT matrix: Draw a four-quadrant matrix on a piece of paper or use a digital tool. Label the quadrants as Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats.

SWOT Analyis Matrix
(Source: Wikipedia)

  • Identify strengths: Analyze the internal factors that give the subject a competitive advantage. Consider resources, skills, expertise, assets, or positive attributes. Write down the identified strengths in the appropriate quadrant.

  • Determine weaknesses: Evaluate the internal aspects that put the subject at a disadvantage. Look for areas of improvement, limitations, or challenges. Note down the identified weaknesses in the corresponding quadrant.

  • Identify opportunities: Examine external factors and trends that could potentially benefit the subject. Look for emerging markets, technological advancements, changing customer needs, or favorable industry developments. Record the identified opportunities in the relevant quadrant.

  • Assess threats: Analyze external factors that could pose risks or challenges to the subject. Consider competition, economic factors, regulatory changes, or disruptive technologies. Note down the identified threats in the appropriate quadrant.

  • Analyze the relationships & impact: Examine the relationships between the different elements in the SWOT analysis. Look for ways strengths can capitalize on opportunities, weaknesses can be mitigated, or threats can be addressed. Identify potential strategies or actions based on these relationships.

  • Develop action plans: Based on the analysis, create action plans to leverage strengths, address weaknesses, seize opportunities, and mitigate threats. Prioritize the actions based on their potential impact and feasibility.

  • Review and update: A SWOT analysis is not a one-time activity. Regularly review and update the analysis as the subject and its environment evolve. This ensures the analysis remains relevant and guides ongoing decision-making.

Remember, conducting a SWOT analysis is an iterative process that requires thoughtful analysis and input from relevant stakeholders. By following these steps, you can effectively evaluate the subject's current situation and develop strategies for success.


Pros and Cons of SWOT analysis

Like any analytical tool, a SWOT analysis has its strengths and limitations. 


In this section, we will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using a SWOT analysis. By understanding these pros and cons, readers will be able to make an informed decision about when and how to use a SWOT analysis effectively.



  • Simplicity and ease of use: The SWOT analysis is a simple and straightforward brainstorming technique that can be easily understood and applied by individuals at various levels of expertise. Its simplicity allows for quick adoption and implementation.

  • Comprehensive assessment: The SWOT analysis provides a holistic view of the subject by considering both internal and external factors. It helps identify a wide range of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, enabling a comprehensive assessment of the situation.

  • Decision-making support: The insights gained from a SWOT analysis can inform decision-making processes. By identifying strengths and opportunities to leverage, as well as weaknesses and threats to address, decision-makers can make informed choices and develop effective strategies.

  • Strategy development: The SWOT analysis serves as a valuable tool for strategy development. It helps align resources, capabilities, and market conditions to determine the best course of action. It facilitates the identification of competitive advantages and areas for improvement.

  • Versatility and adaptability: The SWOT analysis can be applied to various contexts, including businesses, projects, personal development, and non-profit organizations. Its flexibility allows for adaptation to different industries and situations.



  • Simplistic analysis: While the simplicity of the SWOT analysis is a strength, it can also be a limitation. The framework may oversimplify complex situations and fail to capture all relevant factors, leading to incomplete or biased analysis.

  • Subjectivity and bias: The SWOT analysis is subjective and susceptible to personal biases. Different individuals may have different interpretations of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. It is important to involve multiple perspectives to minimize bias.

  • Limited quantitative data: The SWOT analysis primarily relies on qualitative data, which may lack the precision and objectivity of quantitative data. The absence of quantitative metrics can limit the depth of analysis and hinder accurate evaluation.

  • Static analysis: The SWOT analysis provides a snapshot of the current situation. However, it may not effectively capture dynamic and rapidly changing environments. Factors can evolve quickly, making the analysis outdated if not regularly reviewed and updated.

  • Lack of prioritization: The SWOT analysis does not inherently prioritize the identified elements. It is essential to further analyze and prioritize the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to focus on the most critical areas.



In conclusion, the SWOT analysis is a powerful method that enables individuals and organizations to evaluate what works well, what is no longer working and how businesses or organizations can identify those areas and improve them. 

By systematically examining these factors, the SWOT analysis provides valuable insights that can inform decision-making, strategy development, and action planning. 


While it has its limitations, the SWOT analysis remains a widely used and versatile tool in a variety of contexts. 


By leveraging the strengths and opportunities while addressing weaknesses and threats identified through a SWOT analysis, individuals and organizations can position themselves for success and navigate the ever-changing business landscape effectively.


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